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Selasa, 25 September 2012

Materi Kelas XI Bahasa Inggris : tenses

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Study this explanation and compare the examples:
I am doing

Present continuous (I am doing)
Use the present  continuous to talk about something which is happening at or around the time of speaking:

Past                      now                       future

The kettle is boiling. Can you turn it off,    please?
Listen to those people. What language are they speaking?
‘Where’s Tom?’ ‘He’s playing tennis.’
(you find a stranger in your room) What are you doing here? 
Silvia is in Britain for three months. She’s learning English.
Use the present continuous for  a temporary situation :
I’m living with some friends until I can find a flat.
That machine isn’t working. It broke down this morning.
Present simple (I do)
Use the present simple to talk about things in general or things which happen repeatedly:

I do

Past                      now                       future

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

Excuse me, do you speak English?

Tom plays tennis every Saturday.
What do you usually do at weekends?
What do you do? (= What’s your job?)
Most people learn to swim when they are children.
Use the present simple for a permanent situation :
My parents live in London. They have been there for 20 year.
That machine doesn’t work. It hasn’t worked for years.  

I. Examples: I don’t know your telephone number.               RIGHT
Please don’t make so much noise. I study.        WRONG – am studying

1.      Look! Somebody is climbing up that tree over there.             
2.      Can you hear those people? What do they talk about?
3.      Are you believing in god?
4.      Look! That man tries to open the door of you car? 
5.      The moon goes round the earth.
6.      I’m thinking it would be a good idea to leave early.
7.      The government is worried because the number of people 
      Jobs is increasing                                                                      
8.      I’m usually going to work by car.                                   

II. Examples: Please don’t make so much noise. I    am studying    (study).  How many languages     does Tom speak       (Tom/speak)? .This machine        doesn’t work      (not/work). It hasn’t worked for year for years.

1.      I ……………….. (not/belong) to a political party.
2.      Hurry! The bus ……………….. (come). I ……………….. (not/want) to miss it.
3.      The River Nile ……………….. (flow) into the Mediterranean.
4.      The river ……………….. (flow) very fast today – much faster than usual.
5.      ……………….. (it/ever/snow) in India?
6.      We usually… (grow) vegetables in our garden but this year we ….(not/grow) any.
7.      A: Can you drive?   B: No, but ………(learn). My father …………….. (teach) me.
8.      You can borrow my umbrella. I ………………..     (not/need) it at the moment.
9.      (at a party) I usually ……… (enjoy) parties I …… (not/enjoy) this one very much .
10.  George says he’s  80 years old but I ….. (not/ believe) him
11.  Ron is in London at the moment. He …… …………(stay) at the Hilton Hotel. He usually …………..(stay) at the Hilton  Hotel  when he’s in London.
12.  My parents ……… (live) in Bristol. They were born  there and have never lived anywhere else. Where …… (your parents/live)/
13.  She ….. (stay) with her sister at the moment until she finds somewhere it live.
14.  A. What ……… (your father / do)/
B. He’s teacher, but he …… (not/work) at the moment.

Will be doing and will have done

A.    First study  this example situation :
      Tom is football fan and there is a football match on television this evening. The match begins at 7. 30 and ends at 9.15. Ann wants to come and see tom this evening and wants know what time to come:
       Ann:   Is it all right if I come at about 8.30?
       Tom:  No, don’t come then. I’ll be watching the match on Television.
       Ann:   Oh, well, what about 9.30?
       Tom:  Yes, that’ll be fine. The match will have finished by then.
B.     We used will be doing (future Continuous) to say what that we will be in the middle of doing something at a certain time in the future. The football match begins at 7.30 and end at 9.15 so during this time, for example at 8.30, Tom will be watching at match. Here are some more example:
-          You’ll recognize her when you see her. She’ll be wearing a yellow hat.
-          This time next week I’ll be on holiday. I’ll probably be lying on a beautiful beach.
    Compare will be doing with the other continuous forms:
     Tom works every morning from 9 o’clock until midday. So:
-          At 10 o’clock yesterday he was working. ( past continuous )
-          It’s 10 o’clock now. He is working. ( present continuous )
-          At 10 o’clock tomorrow he will be working.
C.     You can also will be doing in another way: to talk about things which are already planned or decided: - I’ll be going to the city center later. Can I get you anything?
D.    We used will have done (Future Perfect) to say that something will already have happened before a certain time in the future. Here are some more examples;
-          Next year is Ted and Amy’s 25th wedding anniversary. They will have been married for 25 years. (Now they have been married for 24 years)
-          We’re late. I expect the film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema.
I.                   Example: I’m going to watch TV from 9 until 10 o’clock this evening. So at 9.30 I will be watching TV.
1.      Tomorrow afternoon I’m going to play tennis from 3 o’clock until 4.30. So at 4 o’clock tomorrow I …………………………………………………………….
2.      Jim is going to study from 7 o’clock until 10 o’clock this evening. So at 8.30 this evening he …………………………………………..
3.      We are going to clean the flat tomorrow. It will take from 9 until 11 o’clock. So at 10 o’clock tomorrow morning ………………….
II.                Bob always read newspaper in the morning. It always takes him half an hour, from 8 o’clock until 8.30. So;
1.      At 8.15 yesterday morning Bob……………………
2.      It’s 8.15 now. He………………………………….
3.      At 8.15 tomorrow morning he…………………… .
III.             Example: You want to borrow your friend’s bicycle this evening. (You/use/your bicycle this evening?). Will you be using your bicycle this evening?
1.      You want your friend to give Tom a message this afternoon. (You/see/Ton this afternoon?)………………………………………………………..
2.      You want your friend’s typewriter tomorrow evening.(You/use/your typewriter tomorrow evening?)………………………………………………….
3.      Your friend is going shopping. You want him/her to buy some stamps for you at the post office.(you/pass/the post office when you’re in town?)…………………..
IV.             Example: Tom and Ann are going to the cinema. The film begins at 7.30 and it is already 7.20. And it will take them 20 minutes to get there. When they get there,(the film/already/star) the film will have already started.
1.      Jim always goes to bed at 11 o’clock. Tom is going to visit him at 11.30 this evening. When Tom arrives, Jim……………………………
2.      Tom is on holiday. He has very little money and he is spending too much too quickly. Before the end of his holiday, (he/spend/all his money)…………………
3.      Chuck came to Britain from the US nearly three years ago. Next Monday it will be exactly three years since he arrived. Next Monday (he/be/here/exactly three years)…………………………………….

Present perfect (I have done/ I have been doing)
How long have they been married? 
They have been married for 20 years.
Bob and Alice are married. They got married exactly 20 years ago. So today is their 20th wedding anniversary. They have been married for 20 years.
We use the present perfect to say how long something has existed or how long something has been happening.
They are married {

b) We use the present perfect continuous (I have been doing) to say how to long something has been happening. Note that the action is still happening now:
- I’ve been learning English for a long time.
- Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting a long?
- It’s been raining since I got up this morning.
Sometimes the action is a repeated action (see also Unit 16B)
- Tom has been driving for ten years.
- How long have you been smoking?
The continuous (I have been doing) or the simple (I have done) can be used for actions repeated over a long period:
- I‘ve been collecting/ I’ve collected stamps since I was child.
c) We use the simple (I have done) for situations that exist for a long time (especially if we say always). Note that the situation still exists now:
- My farther has always worked hard. (not ’has always been working) 
We use the continuous for situations over a shorter time. Compare:
- John has been living in a London since January.
- John has always lived in London.
d) Some verbs (example be, have, know) are not normally used in the continuous see Unit 31 for a list and Unit 24 for have):
- How long have Bob and Alice been married?
- Tom has had a cold for the past week. (not ‘has been having’)
- Tom and I have known each other since we were at school.
e) Do not use present simple (I do) or continuous (I am doing)to say how long something has been happening:  - I’ve been waiting here for an hour. (not ‘I am waiting’)
- How long have you known Tom? (not ‘do you know’)
A.    Examples:       How long have Bob and Alice been married?            RIGHT
I know Bob for five years.                              WRONG – have know
1.      Sue and Alan are married since July.
2.      It is raining all day.
3.      How long has George been unemployed?
4.      Have you always been living in this house?
5.      How long has Ken  a  beard?
6.      How long do you know Ann?
7.      She has been ill for quite a long time.
B. Examples:        Jim is learning Chinese. How long has he been learning Chinese?
                             I know Bob.    How long have you know Bob?
1.      My sister is married. How long
2.      Boris is on holiday. How long
3.      I live in Glasgow.
4.      It is snowing.
5.      Jack smokes.
6.      I know about her problem.
7.      Jack and Jill are looking for a flat.
8.      Diana teaches English in Germany.
9.      Dennis is in love with Margaret.
10.  Colin has a car.
C. Example:         I know Bob. (For five years)   I have know Bob for five years
1.      Jack lives in Bolton. (since he has born)  Jack
2.      Bill is unemployed. (since April)  Bill
3.      Ann has a bad cold. (for the last few days)
4.      I want to go to the moon. (since I was a child)
5.      My brother is studying languages at university. (for two years)
6.      Tim and Jane are working in sheffield. (since February)
7.       My cousin is the army. (since he was 17)
8.      They are waiting for us. (for half an hour)

Jumat, 21 September 2012

Tugas Sejarah - Isi dan Bagian Dari Kitab Mahabarata -

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Isi dan Bagian Dari Kitab Mahabarata

Nama kitab
Kitab Adiparwa berisi berbagai cerita yang bernafaskan Hindu, seperti misalnya kisah pemutaranMandaragiri, kisah Bagawan Dhomya yang menguji ketiga muridnya, kisah para leluhur Pandawa danKorawa, kisah kelahiran Rsi Byasa, kisah masa kanak-kanak Pandawa dan Korawa, kisah tewasnyarakshasa Hidimba di tangan Bhimasena, dan kisah Arjuna mendapatkan Dropadi.
Kitab Sabhaparwa berisi kisah pertemuan Pandawa dan Korawa di sebuah balairung untuk main judi, atas rencana Duryodana. Karena usaha licik Sangkuni, permainan dimenangkan selama dua kali oleh Korawa sehingga sesuai perjanjian, Pandawa harus mengasingkan diri ke hutan selama 12 tahun dan setelah itu melalui masa penyamaran selama 1 tahun.
Kitab Wanaparwa berisi kisah Pandawa selama masa 12 tahun pengasingan diri di hutan. Dalam kitab tersebut juga diceritakan kisah Arjuna yang bertapa di gunung Himalaya untuk memperoleh senjata sakti. Kisah Arjuna tersebut menjadi bahan cerita Arjunawiwaha.
Kitab Wirataparwa berisi kisah masa satu tahun penyamaran Pandawa di Kerajaan Wirata setelah mengalami pengasingan selama 12 tahun. Yudistira menyamar sebagai ahli agama, Bhima sebagai juru masak, Arjuna sebagai guru tari, Nakula sebagai penjinak kuda, Sahadewa sebagai pengembala, danDropadi sebagai penata rias.
Kitab Udyogaparwa berisi kisah tentang persiapan perang keluarga Bharata (Bharatayuddha). Kresna yang bertindak sebagai juru damai gagal merundingkan perdamaian dengan Korawa. Pandawa dan Korawamencari sekutu sebanyak-banyaknya di penjuru Bharatawarsha, dan hampir seluruh Kerajaan India Kunoterbagi menjadi dua kelompok.
Kitab Bhismaparwa merupakan kitab awal yang menceritakan tentang pertempuran di Kurukshetra. Dalam beberapa bagiannya terselip suatu percakapan suci antara Kresna dan Arjuna menjelang perang berlangsung. Percakapan tersebut dikenal sebagai kitab Bhagavad Gītā. Dalam kitab Bhismaparwa juga diceritakan gugurnya Resi Bhisma pada hari kesepuluh karena usaha Arjuna yang dibantu oleh Srikandi.
Kitab Dronaparwa menceritakan kisah pengangkatan Bagawan Drona sebagai panglima perang Korawa. Drona berusaha menangkap Yudistira, namun gagal. Drona gugur di medan perang karena dipenggal olehDrestadyumna ketika ia sedang tertunduk lemas mendengar kabar yang menceritakan kematian anaknya,Aswatama. Dalam kitab tersebut juga diceritakan kisah gugurnya Abimanyu dan Gatotkaca.
Kitab Karnaparwa menceritakan kisah pengangkatan Karna sebagai panglima perang oleh Duryodana setelah gugurnya Bhisma, Drona, dan sekutunya yang lain. Dalam kitab tersebut diceritakan gugurnya Dursasanaoleh Bhima. Salya menjadi kusir kereta Karna, kemudian terjadi pertengkaran antara mereka. Akhirnya, Karna gugur di tangan Arjuna dengan senjata Pasupati pada hari ke-17.
Kitab Salyaparwa berisi kisah pengangkatan Sang Salya sebagai panglima perang Korawa pada hari ke-18. Pada hari itu juga, Salya gugur di medan perang. Setelah ditinggal sekutu dan saudaranya, Duryodanamenyesali perbuatannya dan hendak menghentikan pertikaian dengan para Pandawa. Hal itu menjadi ejekan para Pandawa sehingga Duryodana terpancing untuk berkelahi dengan Bhima. Dalam perkelahian tersebut, Duryodana gugur, tapi ia sempat mengangkat Aswatama sebagai panglima.
Kitab Sauptikaparwa berisi kisah pembalasan dendam Aswatama kepada tentara Pandawa. Pada malam hari, ia bersama Kripa dan Kertawarma menyusup ke dalam kemah pasukan Pandawa dan membunuh banyak orang, kecuali para Pandawa. Setelah itu ia melarikan diri ke pertapaan Byasa. Keesokan harinya ia disusul oleh Pandawa dan terjadi perkelahian antara Aswatama dengan Arjuna. Byasa dan Kresna dapat menyelesaikan permasalahan itu. Akhirnya Aswatama menyesali perbuatannya dan menjadi pertapa.
Kitab Striparwa berisi kisah ratap tangis kaum wanita yang ditinggal oleh suami mereka di medan pertempuran. Yudistira menyelenggarakan upacara pembakaran jenazah bagi mereka yang gugur dan mempersembahkan air suci kepada leluhur. Pada hari itu pula Dewi Kunti menceritakan kelahiran Karnayang menjadi rahasia pribadinya.
Kitab Santiparwa berisi kisah pertikaian batin Yudistira karena telah membunuh saudara-saudaranya di medan pertempuran. Akhirnya ia diberi wejangan suci oleh Rsi Byasa dan Sri Kresna. Mereka menjelaskan rahasia dan tujuan ajaran Hindu agar Yudistira dapat melaksanakan kewajibannya sebagai Raja.
Kitab Anusasanaparwa berisi kisah penyerahan diri Yudistira kepada Resi Bhisma untuk menerima ajarannya. Bhisma mengajarkan tentang ajaran Dharma, Artha, aturan tentang berbagai upacara, kewajiban seorang Raja, dan sebagainya. Akhirnya, Bhisma meninggalkan dunia dengan tenang.
Kitab Aswamedhikaparwa berisi kisah pelaksanaan upacara Aswamedha oleh Raja Yudistira. Kitab tersebut juga menceritakan kisah pertempuran Arjuna dengan para Raja di dunia, kisah kelahiran Parikesit yang semula tewas dalam kandungan karena senjata sakti Aswatama, namun dihidupkan kembali oleh Sri Kresna.
Kitab Asramawasikaparwa berisi kisah kepergian Drestarastra, Gandari, Kunti, Widura, dan Sanjaya ke tengah hutan, untuk meninggalkan dunia ramai. Mereka menyerahkan tahta sepenuhnya kepada Yudistira. Akhirnya Resi Narada datang membawa kabar bahwa mereka telah pergi ke surga karena dibakar oleh api sucinya sendiri.
Kitab Mosalaparwa menceritakan kemusnahan bangsa Wresni. Sri Kresna meninggalkan kerajaannya lalu pergi ke tengah hutan. Arjuna mengunjungi Dwarawati dan mendapati bahwa kota tersebut telah kosong. Atas nasihat Rsi Byasa, Pandawa dan Dropadi menempuh hidup “sanyasin” atau mengasingkan diri dan meninggalkan dunia fana.
Kitab Mahaprastanikaparwa menceritakan kisah perjalanan Pandawa dan Dropadi ke puncak gunungHimalaya, sementara tahta kerajaan diserahkan kepada Parikesit, cucu Arjuna. Dalam pengembaraannya, Dropadi dan para Pandawa (kecuali Yudistira), meninggal dalam perjalanan.
Kitab Swargarohanaparwa menceritakan kisah Yudistira yang mencapai puncak gunung Himalaya dan dijemput untuk mencapai surga oleh Dewa Indra. Dalam perjalanannya, ia ditemani oleh seekor anjing yang sangat setia. Ia menolak masuk surga jika disuruh meninggalkan anjingnya sendirian. Si anjing menampakkan wujudnya yang sebenanrnya, yaitu Dewa Dharma.